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WEIGHTS AND MEASURES


IMPERIAL



WEIGHT
LENGTH LAND, SQUARE OR SUPERFICIAL MEASURE VOLUME LIQUIDS CIRCULAR MEASURE, LONGITUDE, TIME



WEIGHT


The basic unit of weight in the Imperial (British) weight system is the grain - based on the grain of barley, and is common to the weight systems listed.
See the English weights and measures website for more details, this site is recommended reading.



TROY WEIGHT   (For weighing Gold, Silver, etc.)

4 grains = 1 carat
24 grains = 1 pennyweight (dwts.)
20 pennyweight = 1 ounce
12 ounces = 1 pound (lb.)
5760 grains = 1 pound (lb.)



APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT   (For compounding medicines)

20 grains = 1 scruple
3 scruples = 1 dram or drachm
8 drams = 1 ounce
12 ounces = 1 pound (lb.)



AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT   (For heavy groceries, drugs and heavy goods)

16 drams = 1 ounce (oz.)
16 ounces = 1 pound (lb.)
14 pounds = 1 stone
2 stones = 1 quarter
28 pounds (lbs.) = 1 quarter
4 quarters = 1 hundredweight (cwt.)
112 pounds = 1 hundredweight (cwt.)
20 hundredweight = 1 ton
2240 pounds (lbs.) = 1 ton
         
7000 grains troy = 1 pound avoirdupois

3 pennies or 5 half-pennies weigh 1 ounce.


WOOL WEIGHT

7 pounds (lbs.) = 1 clove
2 cloves = 1 stone
2 stone = 1 tod
tods = 1 wey
2 weys = 1 sack
12 sacks = 1 last
240 pounds (lbs.) = 1 pack



DRY MEASURE

4 gills = 1 pint
2 pints = 1 quart
4 quarts = 1 gallon
2 gallons = 1 peck
4 pecks = 1 bushel
8 bushels = 1 quarter
4 quarters = 1 ton
5 quarters = 1 load
2 loads = 1 last




LENGTH

12 lines = 1 inch (in.)
12 inches = 1 foot (ft.)
3 feet (ft.) = 1 yard (yd.)
7.92 inches = 1 link
25 links = 1 rod, pole or perch
16½ feet = 1 rod, pole or perch
yards = 1 rod, pole or perch
4 poles .. = 1 chain
100 links = 1 chain
22 yards = 1 chain
40 poles .. = 1 furlong
220 yards = 1 furlong
8 furlongs = 1 statute mile
5280 feet = 1 mile
1760 yards = 1 mile
2240 yards = 1 Irish mile
3 miles = 1 league

The diameter of one penny is one and three-sixteenths of an inch.
The diameter of a shilling is fifteen-sixteenths of an inch.



SURVEYORS' MEASURE - LENGTH

7.92 inches = 1 link
100 links = 1 chain
66 feet = 1 chain
80 chains = 1 mile





NAUTICAL LINEAR MEASURE

See fishSA.Com for worthwhile comments re Statute Miles vs Nautical Miles
6 feet = 1 fathom
100 fathoms = 1 cable length
600 feet = 1 cable length
6080 feet = 1 nautical mile
6087.15 feet = 1 geographical mile
1 geographical mile = 1 minute of arc on equator
60 nautical miles = 1 degree
69.1 statue miles = 1 degree
Speed        
1 Admiralty knot = 1 nautical mile per hour




LAND, SQUARE OR SUPERFICIAL MEASURE

(sq. = square)
144 sq. inches = 1 sq. foot
9 sq. feet = 1 sq. yard
30¼ sq. yards = 1 sq. pole (sq. rod or perch)
40 sq. poles = 1 rood
4 roods = 1 acre
 
16 sq. poles = 1 sq. cashin
43,560 sq. feet = 1 acre
4840 sq. yards = 1 acre
100,000 sq. links = 1 acre
10 sq. chains = 1 acre
 
640 acres = 1 sq. mile






VOLUME

1728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot
27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard
40 cubic feet = 1 ton of shipping
40 cubic feet = 1 load of rough timber
50 cubic feet = 1 load of squared timber




LIQUIDS


APOTHECARIES' MEASURE

1 fluid minim = .0045 cubic inches
60 fluid minims = 1 fluid dram
8 fluid drams = 1 fluid ounce
20 fluid ounces = 1 pint



LIQUID MEASURE

60 fluid minims = 1 fluid dram
8 fluid drams = 1 fluid ounce
20 fluid ounces = 1 pint
4 gills = 1 pint  (34.66 cu.in.)
2 pints = 1 quart  (69.318 cu. in.)
4 quarts = 1 gallon  (277.274 cu. in.)
gallons = 1 cubic foot  (1728 cu. in.)

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1 minim = 1 drop
1 dram = 1 teaspoon
2 drams = 1 desertspoon
2 drams = 1 desertspoon
2 fluid ounces = 1 wineglass

1 pint of water weighs 20 ounces.
1 gallon of water weighs 10 pounds.

ALE & BEER

4 gills = 1 pint
2 pints = 1 quart
4 quarts = 1 gallon
9 gallons = 1 firkin
2 firkins = 1 kilderkin  (18 gal.)
2 kilderkins = 1 barrel  (36 gal.)
barrels = 1 hogshead  (54 gal.)
2 hogsheads = 1 butt  (108 gal.)
2 butts = 1 tun  (216 gal.)

WINE

4 gills = 1 pint
2 pints = 1 quart
4 quarts = 1 gallon
10 gallons = 1 anker
18 gallons = 1 runlet
42 gallons = 1 tierce
63 gallons = 1 hogshead of wine
84 gallons = 1 puncheon
2 hogsheads = 1 pipe  (126 gal.)
2 pipes = 1 tun of wine  (252 gal.)



CIRCULAR MEASURE, LONGITUDE, TIME




CIRCULAR MEASURE

60 thirds = 1 second
60 seconds = 1 minute
60 minutes = 1 degree
90 degrees = 1 quadrant
360 degrees = 1 circle


LONGITUDE

1 degree longitude = 4 minutes time
15 degrees longitude = 1 hour time

TIME

60 seconds = 1 minute
60 minutes = 1 hour
24 hours = 1 day
7 days = 1 week
4 weeks = 1 lunar month
12 calendar months = 1 year
13 lunar months = 1 year
365 days = 1 common year
366 days = 1 leap year
365¼ days = 1 Julian year
365 days 5 hours 48 min 51 sec = 1 solar year
10 calendar years = 1 decade
10 decades = 1 century

Minute = first division of an hour
Second = second division of an hour
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